Parasites are constantly present in the human body. These can be both pathogenic worms and amoebae and protozoa that do not cause disease and sometimes help to cope with the bacterial flora. Parasites that feed on the host, damage internal organs, and disrupt vital systems pose a health risk.
Classification of human parasites
Human parasites can be of different types. Protozoa, arthropods and helminths are mainly located inside and on the surface of the body. Some organisms are permanent companions of man, while others use them as a temporary reservoir for the transition to the next stage of development.
True parasites cannot live without a host and die in a free environment. Fake people can feel the same thing in the human body, on the ground, in the water, and on surrounding objects. There are also hyperparasites that live within their species and live for them. According to the localization, parasites are divided into:
- Internal. These are endoparasites that feed on intestinal juices, organ tissues, blood and lymph.
- Outside. They are called ectoparasites and live in the body, hair and skin folds.
- Tissue. Habitats are internal organs (liver, heart, lungs, gallbladder, brain).
- Abdomen. These parasites live, feed and multiply in the intestines and stomach.
- Intracellular or blood. They are generally microscopic in size and occur in biological fluids.
In addition to the general classification, there is an individual division of all types of parasites into species and classes. Protozoa can be represented by ciliates, sarcoids and amoebae. The worms are divided into red, ribbon and round worms. Arthropods include insects, arachnids, and blood-sucking insects.
What parasites do humans have?
Humans are equally infected with protozoa and helminths. Insects are mainly diagnosed in socially vulnerable people. Adults, unlike children, can be infected with all known parasites. This is due to the diversity of the diet and the ability to travel. Many are led by the misconception that parasitic diseases are mainly diagnosed in childhood. They are actually detected at an earlier age, but are less common in adults than in children, and only the clinical signs of the invasion can be eliminated.
Protozoa and their localization
These single-celled parasites have lived in the bodies of adults for decades and have been studied by protozoology. They can cause both specific infections and common diseases. Active individuals are called trophozoites and generally have flags for action. The protozoa have the ability to form a capsule (cyst) to continue their life cycle. These forms are immobile and persist for a long time in the external environment and adverse conditions.
Many types of flagellates are parasitized in adults. It has microscopic dimensions and different localization:
- Trichomonas affects the genitourinary system, oral cavity and prostate gland in men;
- intestinal balantidia live in the colonic lumen;
- lamblia parasitizes in the liver, bile ducts and intestines;
- plasmodia of malaria destroys blood cells;
- Toxoplasma is transported through the bloodstream to all organs, including the brain;
- trypanosomes attack the brain and cause "sleep disorders";
- Leishmaniasis is found in the lymph nodes, spleen, liver, and bone marrow;
- Dysentery amoeba lives in the large intestine.
All the simplest types of parasites have a similar life cycle, which is achieved by changing the vegetative phase to the cystic phase. Reproduction in unicellular organisms occurs both sexually and asexually.
Protozoa are true parasites and cannot exist in the trophozoite stage without a permanent or intermediate host.
Diseases caused by worms of the parasite class
Round and flat worms are often found on the bodies of adults. They differ in size, life characteristics and the degree of adverse effects on organs and systems.
A person can have several types of these parasites at once. They belong to the class of roundworms and look like a mile. The worms feel free in the host's body and in an open environment. Among the common causative agents of nematodes are:
- Ascaris. It lives in the small intestine, is between 20 and 40 cm long, and reproduces sexually.
- Pinworm. A small worm no longer than 12 mm in length. It affects the intestines and can lay up to 15, 000 eggs a day. After the male mates, the female dies after the larvae collapse.
- Hookworm. Jejunum and live in the duodenum. This parasite in a person can suck up to 0. 3 ml of blood a day, damaging the intestinal wall with sharp teeth.
- Vlasoglav. The worm is up to 5 cm long, lives in the intestines and draws juices from the thickness of its walls due to its unique body structure.
- Trichinella. It is a 4 mm intramuscular parasite that causes a dangerous trichinosis disease in humans. Trichinella looks like a spiral and is a living helminth.
- Guinea established. This parasite in the human body reaches a length of 1 meter and looks like a thin white thread. The localization of the ligament may be in the area of the subcutaneous layer of the legs, back or under the abdomen.
- Filaria. They enter the body with the bite of infected mosquitoes, midges and horse butterflies. The habitat of filariasis is the entire circulatory and lymphatic system. They block the blood vessels of the heart, lungs and other organs.
- Toxocara. Worm larvae migrate in the body and infect the heart, lungs, liver and brain. The size of adult helminths reaches 18 cm.
- Acne in the gut. The causative agent of strongyloidiasis lives in the intestines during puberty. Snake larvae can spread to the human body through the bloodstream.
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The negative effects on the body of roundworms are due to their mechanical and toxic effects.
These are parasites that live in humans and have a second name for the fluke. There are several types of these flatworms. They cause different diseases, but are similar in structure. All flukes have a leaf-shaped body with two suction cups. Trematodes have no anal cavity; digested food is discarded by mouth.
Trematode parasites affect the body depending on the location. Liver, lanceolate, and feline fluxes affect the liver, gallbladder, and bile ducts. Pulmonary fluke lives in the lungs and blood vessels.
Flukes always have an intermediate host in the form of various mollusks.
This type includes tapeworm or tapeworm. They have a special structure and resemble a chain of separate parts (strobilus). Cestodes parasitize the intestines and secrete large amounts of toxins into the body.
Among the worms of this class common in adults are:
- Wide ribbon. The largest parasite, up to 15 meters long, attracts nutrients from the body and poisons the body with its toxins.
- The pig tied the ribbon. It is the causative agent of teniasis, up to 3 meters in length and "armed" with several hooks.
- The cow ribbon consists of more than a thousand parts and grows up to 10 meters.
- Dwarf tapeworm. The worm is no more than 5 cm in size, lives in the human body for about 2 months and then dies.
- Echinococcus and alveococcus. Helminths cause liver and lung disease and can cause larval blisters on the internal organs.
Cestodes are especially dangerous due to their ability to parasitize in the form of cysts. These are capsular larvae that spread throughout the bloodstream to all organs and cause mass warming.
The most common ectoparasite living in the human body is the pig. It lives on the scalp, underarms, groin, beard and even on the eyelashes and eyebrows. The disease caused by parasites is called head lice. Depending on the location, the body, groin and skull are separated. You can get rid of insects with the help of external agents in the form of shampoos, ointments and solutions.
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The danger of lice is the ability to carry typhus with saliva, which is a serious infectious disease.
Signs of parasites in the human body
With external insects such as lice and fleas, everything is clear, manifested by the formation of local itching and sores on the bite sites. Internal parasites cause a different clinical picture. It depends on the localization of foreign organisms, their size and mass invasion.
In humans, hundreds of worms and protozoa of one or another species can be parasitized at the same time. Parasites can live unnoticed in humans for several years and do not cause specific symptoms. Common symptoms of infection usually include:
- constipation or diarrhea;
- changes in appetite in the direction of increase or decrease;
- anemia for no apparent reason;
- increased nervousness;
- sleep disorders;
- stomach pain;
- disturbance of taste.
The clinical picture with liver damage is complemented by pain in the right hypochondrium, jaundice of the skin, and pain in the mouth. Filariasis manifests itself with symptoms of heart and respiratory failure, toxoplasmosis is accompanied by disorders of the central nervous system. Muscles are affected by trichinosis.
When the genitourinary system is affected by protozoa, the symptoms of infection in women often manifest themselves with urination, vaginal and urethral discharge, and itching. With intestinal invasions, the symptoms of infection in adults may not appear for years, during which time the parasites multiply and weaken the human immune system, which contributes to the development of chronic and systemic diseases.
Symptoms of the presence of protozoa in the body often manifest themselves with fever, headache and allergic reactions. Often one of the first signs of parasites in the body is a rash and itchy skin on the body. This is due to the human body's response to foreign proteins.
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Common symptoms of parasites in the body in the early stages are similar to intestinal infections, dermatitis and digestive diseases.
Why are parasites dangerous?
In humans, parasite invasion can cause various reactions and complications. If the invasion is provoked by small helminths, the risk of complications is very low. When infected with large worm species or highly pathogenic protozoa, damage to health can be unpredictable.
In addition to specific diseases, which sometimes have a severe course, foreigners cause serious disorders of vital systems. Toxins released by parasites into the blood affect the central nervous system and poison the body. Large helminths have a negative mechanical effect on the organs. Many doctors believe that such tissue trauma leads to oncology and tumors. In addition, the parasites cause ulcerative lesions in the intestine and stomach, bronchitis and pneumonia, cystitis and pancreatitis, cholecystitis and colitis.
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Sometimes the symptoms of large worms in adults can appear in the form of an acute abdomen. This occurs when the intestinal membranes are damaged by the development of worms and peritonitis.
Possible sources of infection and preventive measures
There are many ways to become infected with parasites. People are exposed to infections on a daily basis. There is a risk of catching helminths such as flukes and trichinella when eating uncooked meat and fish. If it is not enough to wash your hands or fruits and vegetables well, you can put the eggs of pinworms, askaris, toxocar and other worms in your mouth. When visiting exotic countries, you can catch rare parasites such as rice, malaria plasmodium and trypanosomiasis.
Carriers of the infection are domestic and wild animals, blood-sucking animals, crustaceans and mollusks and ants. Prevention is to reduce the risk of infection through good hand hygiene and proper heat treatment of meat and fish products.
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Tourism enthusiasts must first learn how to infect parasites living in a particular country.
Sometimes it is possible to detect an invasion in the body by studying the anamnesis, in addition to the elemental delivery of biological fluid and feces for analysis. However, not all parasites show clinical symptoms and do not produce larvae. Therefore, PCR and ELISA are recognized as the best diagnostic methods. These are immunological tests that detect parasite DNA and antibodies against them in the venous blood.
Computer diagnostics is still popular today, but it only helps to determine the fact of infection without identifying a specific pathogen. Hemoscanization of blood with the reproduction of biological material is also now required.
Duodenal intubation helps to learn everything about parasites in the liver. During the procedure, bile is obtained by subsequent laboratory examination. Ultrasound, MRI and X-ray examination of the body with echinococcosis in the stage of blistering in the liver and lungs. Intestinal specimens may be seen on colonoscopy.
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Modern technology allows you to detect poisoning at the first signs of infection, so you should consult a doctor as soon as possible to prevent the development of complications.
Drug treatment of parasites in the human body, a restricted diet of starchy foods, sweets, alcohol and author's methods are used to combat invasions. Gathering with cloves, thyme and wormwood helps against diseases. The method based on the use of a glass of tea with cognac on an empty stomach (1 tablespoon per cup), and then the use of laxatives also proved to be justified.
Pharmaceutical drugs for parasites are available in the form of suspensions, tablets, suppositories and injectable solutions. Protozoa, adults are prescribed antiprotozoal drugs.
Parasites need to continue for up to 5 days.
Sometimes a single use of anthelmintic tablets is enough to get rid of medicinal worms such as Ascaris. They paralyze the musculoskeletal system and destroy the worms from the inside. It is more difficult to treat a person with liver, echinococcus and alveococcus. The course of treatment for the body sometimes lasts up to 6 months.
To get rid of parasites forever, you need to take medication according to the scheme established by your doctor.
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Self-medication with pharmaceutical drugs is highly recommended due to the worsening of the condition. Sometimes the first signs of parasite death are the release of toxins into the bloodstream, which requires an additional prescription for detoxification therapy.
Treatment with folk remedies
If parasites appear in the body that cause specific infections, such as malaria, toxoplasmosis, or trichomoniasis, home remedies are out of the question. In these cases, qualified medical care is required.
Traditional medicine is allowed to be used for prophylactic purposes or as adjuvant therapy.
To get rid of invasions, natural remedies are used on the basis of herbs, flowers and products containing high amounts of essential oils.
You can be treated for parasites:
- wormwood infusion (a tablespoon per liter of boiling water);
- tansy decoction (20 grams of grass in 500 ml of boiling water);
- garlic milk (one head of garlic in 250 ml of warm milk);
- onion porridge (chop two onion heads and mix with vegetable oil);
- sweetness of pumpkin seeds (mix one cup of nucleoli with half a cup of honey);
- pumpkin puree (1 kg of pulp, steam in the oven for an hour and hunt).
Natural remedies should be taken one tablespoon at least 10 days before each full meal.
Opinions on the treatment of parasites
- "I feed the whole family with pumpkin seeds. I dry them at room temperature, mix them with any jam, condensed milk or honey and serve them with tea. As a result, no one suffers from parasites. "
- "My husband suffered from stomach pain near the umbilicus for a year, suffered from nausea, went through many tests and found nothing. Recently, a doctor at a paid clinic wrote a prescription for a broad-spectrum anthelmintic, my husband took a pill and aweeks later the pain stopped. "
- "For prevention, I take an antihelminthic medication every fall, as in the country, sometimes eating vegetables directly from the bush. Hanging is cheap, tasty and well tolerated. "